Andrew Fang, Ph.D., P.E., Project Engineer, presented on behalf of K&A at the 2017 American Water Resources Association Annual Conference in Portland, Oregon. The presentation, titled “Flexible TMDL and NPDES Permit Compliance Approaches in California” was part of a session on Tips and Tools for TMDLs, and highlighted three K&A projects. In each location the resulting flexible compliance approach is based on the salient principles used in WQT programs. Water quality trading (WQT) is a flexible compliance tool for wastewater treatment facilities and stormwater authorities and is most often implemented in a TMDL or NPDES permit context. WQT is a cost-effective or least-cost means of compliance with regulatory requirements. California, due to its unique political and environmental advocacy background, has a complex set of agencies and regulatory requirements. Kieser &Associates has been involved in critical stages of program development for California programs since the early 2000’s. The flexible compliance programs include an urban stormwater MS4 permit approach for fine sediment in Lake Tahoe, nutrient point source-nonpoint source offsets in the Laguna de Santa Rosa watershed, and a nonpoint source-centered TMDL compliance program in the San Jacinto River Basin. The presentation described the background and drivers of these programs, and provides an analysis of the program design, credit quantification and verification methods, as well as legal and economic challenges the programs overcame. You can find the presentation here and it will be uploaded to the conference website as well at http://awra.org/meetings/Portland2017/oral.html.